Derechos sucesorios del cónyuge viudo en el derecho común

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El cónyuge que sobrevive al otro está reconocido en nuestro ordenamiento como heredero forzoso, de manera que exista o no testamento realizado por el fallecido, el cónyuge viudo será llamado a la herencia.

1. ¿Qué derechos sucesorios tiene el cónyuge viudo?

A la muerte de su esposo/a el sobreviviente es llamado como legitimario a disfrutar del usufructo de una parte de la herencia del fallecido con carácter vitalicio, tanto en la sucesión testada (si existe testamento) como en la sucesión intestada (sin testamento).

2.Requisitos para que tenga derechos sucesorios:

 Ser cónyuge viudo, se requiere que el matrimonio subsista al fallecer el consorte (ni pareja de hecho, ni divorciado, ni separado, ni de matrimonio declarado nulo)

* Excepciones:   –  Existen algunas Comunidades Autónomas en las que su derecho foral reconoce a las parejas de hecho mismos derechos sucesorios que a los matrimonios, como Baleares o Cataluña.

– Respecto a la nulidad del matrimonio, una vez declarada judicialmente supone que tal matrimonio nunca ha existido, pero ¿Y qué pasa con el matrimonio putativo, es decir, el celebrado de Buena fe por una de las partes? El artículo 79 cc señala: «la declaración de nulidad del matrimonio no invalidará los efectos ya producidos respecto de los hijos y del contrayente o contrayentes de Buena fe». Fallecido uno de los cónyuges, si posteriormente se prueba que existió causa de nulidad, consideramos que el cónyuge supérstite sí tiene derecho a la legítima, pues la acción de nulidad es personalísima y no se transmite a los herederos del fallecido.

– Tener capacidad para suceder y no estar incurso en causa de indignidad (contempladas en el artículo 756 del código civil)

No haber sido justamente desheredado en virtud de las causas previstas en los artículos 852 y 855 del código.

3. Cuantía de la legítima del cónyuge viudo.

Lo que le corresponde al que sobreviva depende de con quién concurre a la herencia del cónyuge fallecido, así:

Si concurre con hijos o descencientes, le corresponde el usufructo del tercio de mejora, es decir, el uso y disfrute de una tercera parte de la herencia.

Si concurre con los padres o demás ascendientes, tendrá derecho al usufructo de la mitad de la herencia.

Si concurre con otras personas. Aquí distinguimos entre;

* Sucesión testamentaria : le corresponde el usufructo de dos tercios de la herencia.

* Sucesión intestada (sin testamento): si no hay descendientes ni ascendientes le corresponde en propiedad, la totalidad de la herencia.

4. ¿Qué significa conmutar el derecho de usufructo del cónyuge viudo?

Antes de realizarse la partición de los bienes de la herencia, el derecho de usufructo puede ser sustituido y pagarse de otra forma ( mediante una renta vitalicia, el producto de determinados bienes, un capital en efectivo, lote de bienes hereditarios.. )

La razón de ser de esta posibilidad radica en simplificar las relaciones entre las partes, además de facilitar la posibilidad de que el/los propietarios puedan disponer de las cosas que les pertenecen.

Lo entenderemos con un ejemplo sencillo, imaginemos que por herencia al viudo le corresponde el usufructo de una vivienda cuya nuda propiedad pertenece al hijo por ser el heredero, en este caso, hasta que no muera su padre no puede arrendarla ni venderla, pues nadie querrá alquilar o comprar algo sabiendo que un tercero puede usarlo en cualquier momento, por ello, se sustituye el usufructo de esa vivienda por un capital determinado , por una renta vitalicia (pensión anual) u otros bienes de la herencia cuyo valor equivalga al derecho de usufructo que se pretende sustituir.

¿Quién puede ejercitar este derecho de conmutar?: Los herederos, sean voluntarios, forzosos, testados o abintestados. Si son varios deberán ponerse de acuerdo sobre la decisión de conmutar y la fórmula de pago. A falta de acuerdo decidirá la autoridad judicial.

¿Cuándo debe ejercitarse la facultad de conmutar? : Siempre antes de quedar formalizada la partición.

– ¿Cómo se calcula el valor del derecho de usufructo vitalicio? Partimos de la base de que el valor del usufructo para una persona menor de 20 años es el 70% del valor total de la cosa sobre la que recae, disminuyendo 1% con cada año más respecto de los 20.

   FÓRMULA para calcularlo:  89- (edad del viudo/a usufructuario)= usufructo.

EJEMPLO: consorte viudo de 59 años, que tiene el usufructo de un piso cuyo valor total es de 300.000€.

Usufructo= 89-59= 30%

300.000 x 30% = 90.000    este es el valor del usufructo.

 

supuesto excepcional del artículo 840 cc. Se trata de una novedad introducida en 1981, cuya finalidad es la de evitar que el cónyuge viudo mantenga relaciones permanentes de usufructo y propiedad con los hijos solo del consorte.

El artículo está pensando por ejemplo en los supuestos de segundas nupcias en los que el cónyuge fallecido es el progenitor de los hijos llamados herederos, y el que tiene derecho de usufructo es segundo o tercer consorte.

Además de los derechos sucesorios anteriormente descritos cabe mencionar los siguientes:

– Derecho al ajuar doméstico, que supone la entrega de ropas, mobiliarios y enseres sin computárselo en su parte de la caudal hereditario.

 

 

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